According to the latest figures from Eurostat females accounted for only 32% of all asylum applicants to EU countries in 2016 and have made up similarly low proportions for the past seven years.
Read the story signed Megan Passey on The Mixed Migration Platform Blog.
Despite this, the proportion of women and girls among refugees and other migrants to Europe is increasing, especially among asylum seekers of certain nationalities. Compared to the year before, 2016 saw increased proportions of female applicants from all but one of the top ten nationalities of new arrivals to Europe – including a 47% increase in the proportion of women and girls from Iraq and 46% from Afghanistan.
So why is this happening? And will the gender balance continue to shift? We take a look at some myths and some facts to help explain what’s so remarkable about the migration of women and girls to Europe.
The Mixed Migration Platform (MMP) is a joint-NGO initiative providing quality mixed migration-related information for policy, programming and advocacy work, as well as critical information for people on the move. Its focus is on people moving to, from, and within the Middle East. The platform was established by seven partners - ACAPS, Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Ground Truth Solutions, Internews, INTERSOS, REACH & Translators Without Borders (TWB) - and acts as an information hub on mixed migration in the region. For more information visit our website and follow us on twitter @mmp_migration.
Myth 1: Cultural traditions mean that women are less likely to migrate than men
In the past two years, over 60% of all asylum seekers in the EU have originated from just five countries: Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria, all affected by war, ongoing conflict and chronic insecurity. Despite coming to Europe for the same main reasons – safety and security, followed by access to employment, education and healthcare – the proportion of women and girls among asylum seekers of each of these nationalities differs greatly. In 2016 for example, women and girls made up over a third of all Syrian asylum seekers – 36% – compared to 29% of those from Afghanistan and only 6% from Pakistan.
While the figures above clearly show that nationality plays a role – influenced in part by social and cultural norms – women are often active rather than passive actors in the decision to migrate. One assessment from the Western Balkans found that married women frequently reported that the decision to travel was taken jointly with their husbands, while a small minority of women had deliberately left ahead of male family members, believing it would be easier for them to be granted asylum. With evidence from Syria suggesting that ongoing conflict is changing traditional gender roles and leaving some women with increased access to employment, greater autonomy and aspirations of continued independence, it is possible that evolving cultural norms may bring further tangible change to the composition of migration flows in the future.
Myth 2: Girls are just as likely to travel as boys
The UN refugee agency provides data on arrivals by sea for women, men and children, grouping all those aged under 18 into a single category and reinforcing the idea that girls are travelling as often as boys. Eurostat data, however, shows greater numbers of boys than girls applying for asylum – of the 291,665 minors for whom information was available in 2016, boys accounted for 58% and girls 42%.
Grouping girls and boys together as simply "children" also fails to take into account the difference between children travelling with family members, and unaccompanied minors, who are ten times more likely to be male than female. According to the latest available figures from Eurostat, girls made up only 9% of all asylum applications by unaccompanied minors in 2015. Girls and boys have different specific needs and face differing levels of risk along the journey – grouping them together as children fails to take this into account.
Myth 3: Women and girls on the move face greater risks than men and boys
Early last year, news about the growing numbers of women arriving in Europe led to numerous reports on the specific risks they faced along the journey, including health complications, sexual and gender based violence, exploitation and trafficking. While of significant cause for concern, available evidence suggests that women and girls on the move face different levels of risk relative to men and boys at different moments of their migration, leaving them both more and less vulnerable to different threats – a nuance that is often overlooked.
One IOM study of 1,545 refugees and other migrants along the Eastern Mediterranean route found that men were more likely than women to report exposure to a range of risks, including being forced to work, held against their will, or not having received payment for work completed. While the short surveys of this study are not exhaustive and it is possible that protection incidents – particularly of a more sensitive nature – may have been under-reported, these findings show how men can often be more vulnerable to certain threats, especially those travelling alone.
Myth 4: Women are as likely to be granted asylum as men
Despite generally being considered a more vulnerable group by humanitarian responders, women and girls are actually slightly less likely than men and boys to file a successful claim for asylum in the EU. According to figures from Eurostat, 51% of female asylum applicants were rejected by EU states in 2015, compared to 49% of male applicants. According to a study of reception and asylum in Germany, women frequently struggled to access female interviewers, interpreters and childcare, adding to their difficulties to file a successful claim. Ensuring a gender-sensitive asylum application process is vital to ensure all cases receive fair consideration, regardless of gender.
So what now?
Since the formal closure of the Western Balkans route and general tightening of borders across Europe, women, men, boys and girls have continued to leave conflict-affected countries in search of asylum in Europe. While a lower overall number of new arrivals, 2016 saw more people travelling through "covert means" due to a lack of legal alternatives – a situation likely to continue into 2017. Such covert means include overstaying visas, using the services of smugglers, or travelling through other irregular means. For those hoping to join existing family members already in Europe, access to family reunification schemes will also continue to be important. Tightening restrictions suggest the process is getting more difficult, however, leading to fears that it may be at best drawn-out and at worst unattainable, and raising the possibility of increasing reliance upon more dangerous alternatives.
(MEGAN PASSEY is an analyst with REACH, working in Amman as part of the Mixed Migration Platform.)