For almost four decades, Iran has hosted one of the world’s largest displaced populations, including around 3.6 million Afghans and 28,000 Iraqis.
Less than half the Afghan population in Iran is documented. Rising annual renewal fees are costly, notably for larger families. Undocumented and newly arrived Afghans face issues accessing basic services and may be at risk of deportation. Recent progressive policies by the Iranian government include granting access to universal public health insurance to documented Afghans. By opening public schools to all Afghan children, undocumented families with children attending public schools are no longer subject to deportation.
While Iran’s support for Afghan refugees exceeds that of many aid organisations, Afghans’ ability to secure reliable and regular income remains a challenge. Their situation is further exasperated as Iran’s economy faces serious challenges as a result of the reimposition of US sanctions in 2018.
Iran is disaster-prone, struck by frequent earthquakes and floods.
People we helped in Iran in 2018
We work to improve the access of displaced Afghans in Iran to basic humanitarian services. We deliver services in 9 provinces across the country and work closely with our operations in Afghanistan to ensure an overall regional response.
Through our support to UNHCR’s Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees (SSAR) we advocate for improved coordination in response to Afghans' needs. Since November 2017, we've also been providing emergency relief including shelter and sanitation and hygiene units to those affected by Kermanshah’s earthquake.
In 2015, the Supreme Leader issued a decree through which all Afghan children are given access to education irrespective of their legal status. However, socio-economic and cultural barriers to the implementation of this decree remain. Our team offers:
- literacy and numeracy courses through Accelerated Education Programmes for out-of-school children to help them bridge the gap and enter school at the appropriate level
- life skill courses for school students and out-of-school
- life skills and positive parenting courses for parents
- support to the formal education system by building and rehabilitating schools and classrooms, including Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) facilities, and providing essential education materials including school equipment and stationery
- certified soft skills training for youth
Information, counselling and legal assistance (ICLA)
Our ICLA team supports Iran’s displaced Afghan population in exercising their rights and making informed decisions. Our experts provide:
- information and counselling to improve access to essential services
- unconditional cash assistance as a protection tool, to enable greater access to available services including education and civil documentation and to address emergency situations
- reliable information to Afghans considering a return to Afghanistan, on how to access identity and civil documentation and available services upon return, so that they can make informed decisions
Livelihoods and food security
Our livelihoods and food security team explore ways to improve refugee and displaced families’ livelihoods and to foster their social and economic status in Iran. We also provide emergency cash assistance to people affected by natural disasters. Our specialists:
- distribute multi-purpose cash through bank cards to cover basic household needs
- provide business grants and/or toolkits for eligible small business owners to initiate and/or expand their activities
- collaborate with our education team to offer certified vocational and transferrable skills training including tailoring, construction, welding, electricity, hairdressing, plumbing and computer use
- establish income generating workshops
- conduct labour market assessments to design new projects and maximise their impact
Shelter and settlements
Our shelter team works towards providing displaced Afghans and those affected by emergencies with safe and suitable living conditions and addresses housing deficiencies in settlements, urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our team:
- constructs/rehabilitates shelters and public infrastructure, including playgrounds, power supply networks, sport courts etc.
- constructs and rehabilitates schools to provide safe educational space
- constructs community centres designed to serve as hubs to deliver services to Afghan and host communities
- provides training about basic construction practices and energy-saving techniques
- supports our emergency response team in the case of an emergency notably through the provision of non-food items
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) promotion
It is crucial that displaced Afghans in Iran as well as those affected by emergencies have access to potable water and adequate sanitation facilities. To ensure this, our WASH team:
- collaborates with our shelter team to construct and upgrade latrines, showers and handwashing facilities in public spaces such as settlements and schools, as well as in refugees’ shelters
- provides and maintains sewage treatment plants (STPs)
- offers Hygiene Promotion Training, for students and adults
- distributes hygiene kits to students and households, to reinforce training and ensure behaviour change
- improves access to safe and drinkable water for refugees through provision of water purifiers or water trucking
- provides WASH infrastructure including aerial water reservoirs and surface-water collection systems
- supports our emergency response team in the case of an emergency
- Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NMFA)
- German Federal Foreign Office (GFFO)
- Australian Direct Aid Program (DAP)
- Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO)
- European Commission’s Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO)
- Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)
- Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)
About NRC in (country)
Country DirectorOlivier Vandecasteele
Phone+98-21-86088356 / +98-21-88066173
In Trump-Iran showdown, Afghan refugees are neglected but devastating collateral damage
As leaders in the United States and Iran continue their geopolitical showdown, millions of Afghan refugees, disaster victims and ordinary communities in Iran will be the first and hardest hit.