After several years of civil conflict, Libya continues to be characterised by political instability, conflict, economic crisis and insecurity. Political and military rivalry between factions persists, and this rivalry is further exacerbated by the presence of hundreds of militias with varying allegiances, amounting to sporadic eruptions of violence. Recent attacks have been claimed by the Islamic State group, which may signal the group’s re-emergence in Libya. The security and political environment in Libya will continue to remain fluid in 2019.
Against this backdrop of uncertainty, an estimated 823,000 individuals need humanitarian assistance in Libya as a result of the protracted crisis. The IOM estimates that there are still 187,423 Libyans internally displaced (IDPs). Those who have returned to their areas of origin, are returning to severely damaged homes and communities comprised of broken local institutions unable to provide protection, basic services or enforce the rule of law leading to widespread insecurity.
NRC began operations in Libya in 2017 and has continued to scale up its operational and programming presence supporting Libyan IDPs, returnees, host communities as well as vulnerable non-Libyan communities. In addition to ongoing shelter and education projects, we are set to scale up our shelter and WASH programmes in 2019. Through a partnership with UNHCR, we are leading a review of Housing, Land and Property (HLP) Rights. NRC is the co-lead of the National Education and Shelter Working Sector Working Group. NRC has established offices and guesthouses in Tripoli and Benghazi.
NRC’s education response will be implemented into two phases; an emergency/transitional and a resilience/sustainable phase. It is an emergency/transitional phase when school-age children are out of school and the resilience/sustainable phase can be understood as the phase where formal systems are established and implemented. The education environment in In Libya is comprised of both phases in parallel. NRC will respond to both phases. The response will take place in NRCs established learning centres and in government schools. NRC will also work with communities in the provision of community-based education services when and if the capacity of the formal education delivery does not have the capacity to provide education for all. Training and support to volunteer teachers is one area NRC can contribute. Key activities supported by the NRC Libya education strategy will include:
- Better Learning Programme (BLP)
- School rehabilitation/upgrades
- Teacher professional development
- Arabic Basic Literacy and Numeracy (BLN) non-formal education classes
- Non-formal catch-up classes for non-Libyan children and youth
- Adolescent Girls Clubs (AGCs)
- Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs)
- Outreach and community awareness activities
- Sector coordination and capacity building
Information, counselling and legal assistance (ICLA)
NRC’s main objective under the ICLA strategy will be to support vulnerable displacement and conflicted affected communities to establish legal identity, including obtaining legal civil documentation (LCD), and claim their Housing, Land and Property (HLP) rights. This will be done through awareness raising on legal protection needs by providing information at the community level. Through mobile group information sessions (GIS), NRC will raise awareness on LCD and HLP rights, procedural requirements and how to exercise them. Furthermore, under this objective NRC will provide populations of concern with direct legal assistance and representation before formal courts, administrative bodies, or through collaborative dispute resolution mechanisms. Finally, NRC will provide technical assistance and capacity building to duty-bearers, customary justice actors and displaced community leaders on property rights, protection against eviction, property restitution and compensation. NRC will also provide HLP support to NRC Shelter teams and the Shelter sector at large by conducting HLP due diligence for Shelter beneficiaries and by training NRC Shelter teams in HLP and security of tenure issues. This will help ensure that mitigation measures are in place for not doing harm, including reducing the risk of eviction and increasing beneficiary protection against exclusion from compensation schemes.
Shelter and settlements
NRC Libya’s Shelter strategy will focus on ensuring dignified living conditions for displacement and conflicted affected communities in urban settings and informal settlements. This will be achieved through the rehabilitation of damaged houses in urban settings and improvement of the shelter and WASH conditions of vulnerable IDPs living informal settlements.
NRC will provide shelter assistance to conflict-affected population including returnees, IDPs and other vulnerable groups in urban settings. NRC will target the most vulnerable population in underserved areas. The selection of Families with persons with special needs, female-headed households or families hosting orphans or children separated from parents will be given high priority. NRC shelter teams will conduct house-to-house assessments and beneficiaries will actively be involved in the assessment process for identifying the urgent shelter repairs/needs for their houses that are within shelter/NFI cluster guidelines. As proof of ownership is an essential element of the rehabilitation and upgrade modalities, NRC ICLA and Shelter teams will operate in the same areas to maximize the impact of this programme and in line with NRC’s commitment to integrated programming. NRC assistance to beneficiaries with security of tenure will complement the work carried out by NRC ICLA teams regarding access to civil documentation.
NRC will also support informal settlements where vulnerable families will be supported with shelter repairs and improvements, and the larger informal settlement communities will benefit from garbage removal, garbage bins distribution and communal lighting systems.
- Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NMFA)
- Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)
- United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR)
- Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO)
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)